Interview with the Grant winners

Interview with the Grant winners

Recently scientists of the ETU have received Grants of the Russian Federation President. They answered some questions that reveal the essence of their research activities and the importance of carried-out development.

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Young scientists of St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University "LETI" received grants of the Russian Federation President in 2014. Staff of ETU Public Relations Department asked all the winners to answer some questions that reveal the essence of their research activities and the importance of carried-out development.

Gryaznov Artyom , Ph.D. , assistant professor of Electron Devices and Systems Department

- What year did you enter our university? When did you get a degree?

- I entered the ETU in 1994, defended Ph.D. thesis in 2004, doctorate thesis in 2010.

- When and how were you engaged in science? When did your interest in it appear?

- To be honest, back at the time of being the first-year student I knew what I wanted to do. 

- What developments were you given the grant for?

- I am engaged in X-ray diagnostic. There are works that have already been completed, such as dental devices. But this is not just my work - I work in team. Grant was given for the subject, which was suggested by me - the theme of microfocus mammography units, i.e. for breast X ray. Today the early cancer cannot be detected by X-ray. If my idea is realized, it will be possible to disclose this disease earlier. According to statistics, tens of thousands of Russian women cannot be operated.

- What research is performed at the moment?

- New developments are carried out at our department constantly. We have finished with dentistry, traumatology, with devices for veterinary medicine. Now we are making devices for neonatology (for newborn), working at microfocus tomograph which doesn’t exist in Russia yet. About 15-20 people are working with these subjects. The topic of my PhD thesis is very close to this one. No one will give you money to make this device just because, and due to this grant we will be able to buy equipment and test facilities priced at 100,000 rubles. They cannot be bought on your own money.

Sergey Y. Shevchenko, Ph.D., assistant professor of Laser Measurement and Navigation Systems

- What year did you enter our university? When did you get a degree?

- I entered the ETU in 1998 , finished  bachelor degree course in 2002,master course in 2004. In the same year I entered post-graduate course, defended the thesis in 2007.

- When and how were you engaged in science? When did your interest in it appear?

- Probably, interest in science appeared during writing the graduate thesis on the 4th course, as it happens with many students. I remember it well, when  my future thesis supervisor, Professor Dmitriy P. Lukyanov, invited me to speak with him in building 6, where our department was then, and offered me a choice of two topics: laser subject or topic of laser on new physical principles. I chose the second one, and we are still doing this together .

- What developments were you given the grant for?

- Grant Subject is "Investigation of mechanical and electroacoustic effects for creation the new generation of solid-state micro-mechanical sensor devices". It is connected with the development of conceptions for constructing micromechanical acceleration gage and gyro sensors on surface acoustic wave. Effected by acceleration and angular velocity, parameters of the acoustic wave change that influences the frequency of its distribution. This change, in its turn, is proportional to the input size.

Micromechanical acceleration gages and gyro sensors are used on mobile objects of different classes of civil and military appliance: motor-car construction, robotics, medicine, navigation systems of different class objects, guided missiles, etc. Any change in position and trajectory of the object can be controlled on the testimony of a triad of gyroscopes (angular speed variation along three axes) and acceleration gages (acceleration change). Let’s imagine a helicopter which begins to lean. Speed and acceleration of its position change is determined with the help of micromechanical acceleration gages and gyro sensors. This information goes to the control system, which works this change through to stabilize the helicopter for it not to fall. Airbags are arranged on the same principle. Maximum acceleration of the vehicle which can occur under ordinary condition is registered. If acceleration exceeds the norm very much or changes its direction (because of collision) airbags pop out.

However, there is a variety of civil and military appliances related to highly dynamic moving objects. These areas are not available for micromechanical acceleration gages and gyro sensors yet which represent a quartz plate fixed to the torsional bar, making forced oscillations on its own resonance frequency. They cannot be put on a rocket because they will not resist load: affected by blow or vibration they just break. We are just working on reducing the size of devices to a minimum without losing their accuracy, at the same time trying to increase their resistance to physical load. We step aside from the torsion bars with the help of another physical principle, and we succeed so far. At the present time we measure acceleration, and we are working at angular velocity now. Things we do withstand enormous loads .

- What research is performed at the moment?

- Many graduates write their degree works on these subjects, people who work with this topic enter our post-graduate course. Now we have two such post-graduate students: one is engaged in microaccelerometers on microacoustic waves, the other - in the acoustic wave gyro sensor. The number increases, and it means this subject is interesting.

Alexey N. Shatunov, Ph.D., senior lecturer of Electrotechnology and Converter Engineering Department

- What year did you enter our university? When did you get a degree?

- I entered LETI in 1997, became an engineer in 2003. I became Ph.D. in 2008 on topic of "Modelling and research of induction systems with a split-type conducting crucible during melting of oxide materials"

- When and how were you engaged in science? When did your interest in it appear?

- Science came into my life imperceptibly. I did not expect that I could stay in the university till the graduation course. However, writing the thesis changed something and when I was asked to enter post-graduate course, I agreed. That’s how it all started.

- What developments were you given the grant for?

- The subject of the grant is "Technology of multisilicon production for solar energy using induction melting in cold crucible". This work continues the studies conducted in 2011-2012 under the Grant of Russian Federation President for state support of young Russian scientists – PhDs (Development of energy-efficient technology of producing multicrystalline silicon for photovoltaic energetics).

Then the algorithm of controlling the shape of crystallization front for maximum performance and quality of silicon ingot was developed and draft of induction furnace for getting silicon ingot was created. The aim of this work is to reduce power consumption in production of solar grade multicrystalline silicon ingots by continuous -sequential crystallization of liquid melt in induction furnace with split-type water-cooled crucible .

- What research is performed at the moment?

- Theoretical studies and development of zone purification technology of used nuclear fuel from the fission products for its re-use in the fuel cycle are conducted. This is a complex task, which includes study of the effects of electromagnetic and thermal characteristics of the induction system on the temperature field in melt, hydrodynamic processes in melt, melt crystallization front shape. As the result, laboratory induction furnace will be designed and algorithms of controlling zone melting for necessary degree of purification. 

Ekaterina S. Filatova, Ph.D., assistant professor of Academic Control Systems Department

- What year did you enter our university? When did you get a degree?

- I entered LETI in 1998. I received Ph.D. in 2009. The topic of my thesis is "The system of short-term electrical load forecasting".

- When and how were you engaged in science? When did your interest in it appear?

I think, it impossible to give the exact date. In the first year of Master’s degree program I started to plan entry on post–graduate course. I believe that potential scientist is curious, has desire to improve their knowledge and gain new, wants to understand the essence of the phenomenon. And these aspirations can show up at any age.

- What developments were you given the grant for?

- Work, that will be performed under this grant, is continuation of research I conducted in my thesis. Subject of time series forecasting is always relevant and development of new forecasting methods that help to improve accuracy of the dynamics of time series prediction is one of the most interesting and important problems in this direction.

- What research is performed at the moment?

- I believe that our country needs applied science now. That is why when writing the thesis and preparing grant application I focused my attention on the practical application of the results (although electricity is not the only area where such developments can be useful). At the present time research on reconstruction of phase portrait on time series of electrical load by delay method, which is widely used in dynamic analysis of time series, is conducted. The idea is that the attractor of chaotic system can be restored by measuring only one parameter of the dynamic system represented in the form of time series. Further we plan to explore the derived phase portrait and apply a special method to predict the future behavior of the system. Perhaps this approach will allow us to implement more accurate prediction of power consumption.